Correctional Ministries and
Chaplains Association

Reentry - Community Corrections

Ball, David, Robert Weisberg, and Kara Dansky. The First 72 Hours of Re-Entry: Seizing the Moment of Release. Stanford, CA: Stanford Criminal Justice Center, 2008.

The importance of the first 72 hours of release from a correctional facility for successful parolee reentry is explained. Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; pre-release planning in prison; focus -- the first 72 hours; choreographing the first 72 hours; the larger lessons of the first 72 hours; and conclusion -- the first 72 hours revisited.


Bartruff, Jerry, Nathan Lowe, and Shawn Rogers. Webinar: Evidence-Based Practices of Community Supervision: Part 2, What Works in Parole and the Prisoner Reentry Process. New York: National Reentry Resource Center, 2011.

“The goal of this webinar is to educate community corrections professionals on evidence-based practices of parole supervision, particularly with respect to the reentry of parolees leaving prison.” Participants will be able to: understand the core elements of EBPs and parole supervision; discuss the pros and cons of EBPs implementation; recognize leadership qualities that are conducive to using a successful evidence-based approach; and identify at least two practices that they could implement to enhance parole supervision and reentry outcomes.


Burke, Peggy, and Michael Tonry. Successful Transition and Reentry for Safer Communities: A Call to Action for Parole. Silver Spring, MD: Center for Effective Public Policy, 2006.

The critical role of paroling authorities and parole supervision agencies in the successful reintegration of offenders into the community is explained. Sections of this report are: introduction; successful reentry as community safety -- the significant consequences of unsuccessful reentry; what we know about success -- putting the lessons of research into practice; parole in 2006 -- a century of evolution (e.g., the rehabilitative ideal, just deserts, deterrence and incapacitation, parole's decline, lessons of experience, and readiness and tools for change; and an agenda for action.

Community Oriented Policing

The U.S. Department of Justice Community Oriented Policing website provides a unique window into the issue of reentry as it is focused on the role of law enforcement in offender reentry. It is a portal to papers on crime mapping, leadership, and law enforcement reentry strategies using “problem solving approaches", community policing, and collaborations with other agencies. The website also links to the PBS Frontline movie "Released" which is focused on mentally ill offenders returning to the community.

Guevara, Meghan, and Enver Solomon. Implementing Evidence-Based Policy and Practice in Community Corrections: 2nd ed. Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections, 2009.

A “guide for [community corrections] agencies to transform themselves into evidence-based organizations” is provided (p.xv). Six chapters follow an executive summary: what evidence-based practice is; the integrated model; the principles of effective intervention; implementing evidence-based principles; leading organizational change and development; and collaboration for systemic change. The appendixes include: research support gradient; the search conference; and key concepts in organizational development.


Hamilton, Zachary. Do Reentry Courts Reduce Recidivism? Results from the Harlem Parole Reentry Court. New York: Center for Court Innovation, 2010.

Those wanting to implement a reentry court in their community can use this report to show how such courts greatly benefit public safety. Six chapters follow an executive summary: introduction; the state of prisoner reentry; the reentry court model; study design and analysis plan; results according to recidivism and reincarceration rates, months to rearrest/revocation, role of duration, and predictors of completion/graduation (prior behavior seems to indicate future behavior); and discussion and conclusion. “The findings indicate that the Reentry Court program has a positive impact with regard to preventing new criminal behavior—rearrests and revocations” (p.29).


La Vigne, Nancy G. Mapping for Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Efforts: A Guidebook for Law Enforcement Agencies and Their Partners. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2006.

The use of mapping by police to support community-based prisoner reentry is explained. Topics covered include: the purpose of this guidebook; why police should be involved in prisoner reentry; how police can effectively use mapping; partnerships that should be forged; how reentry data can be obtained; how reentry maps should be presented; obstacles to reentry mapping; and how mapping can lead to action.


Morgan, Robert D., Daryl G. Kroner, and Jeremy F. Mills. Re-entry: Dynamic Risk Assessment. Technical Report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2011.

This study aims to examine the dynamic predictors of post-release outcomes for parolees reentering the community. Sections of this report following an abstract are: executive summary; technical report—introduction, methods, and results; and conclusions. “Most notably, in this study changes in offenders dynamic functioning was not associated with changes in community outcomes. That is, measuring change in offenders functioning using rated measures did not increase our ability to predict community failure. Importantly however, offenders were able to self-report risk areas that were predictive of community failure suggesting that offenders should be involved in the criminal risk assessment” (p. 3).


Parole, Desistance from Crime, and Community Integration. Washington, DC: National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Committee on Law and Justice, 2008.

Individuals should turn to this book if they want to know what is known “about various models of community supervision designed to reduce recidivism and promote desistance from crime” (p. ix). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction and Offender Reentry background; dimensions of desistance; parole-current practices; services and practices for releases; criminal justice institutions and community resources; and conclusions, recommendations, and research agenda. It seems that recidivism is greatly reduced through the use of cognitive-treatment programs.


Petersilia, Joan. When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

The "systems, people, programs, and prospects for implementing a more effective and just [prisoner reentry] system" are analyzed (p. vi). The ten chapters comprising this book are: the emerging importance of prisoner reentry to crime and community; a profile of returning prisoners; the origins and evolution of modern parole; the changing nature of parole supervision and services; preparing inmates for release; legal and practical barriers to reintegration; inmate release and recidivism -- revolving door justice; the victim's role in prisoner reentry; reforming parole and reentry practices; and when punitive policies backfire.


Rudes, Danielle S., Jennifer Lerch, and Faye S. Taxman. “Implementing a Reentry Framework at a Correctional Facility: Challenges to the Culture.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 50:8, 467-491, 2011.

Implementation research is emerging in the field of corrections, but few studies have examined the complexities associated with implementing change among frontline workers embedded in specific organizational cultures. Using a mixed methods approach, the authors examine the challenges faced by correctional workers in a work release correctional facility during their transformation into a reentry center. Findings reveal that staff report a low readiness for change while observational and interview data confirm that staff attitudes and accompanying behaviors undermine efforts to provide a humane environment for reentry. This study illustrates the value of using quantitative and qualitative methods to understand and measure key organizational issues that affect the ability to alter the milieu for delivering services. The authors examine how inertia regarding reforms is not due to the nature of the reform but rather to the culture of the organization and how important it is to address organizational culture. They also highlight the importance of integrating interactional and routine practices among frontline workers as part of a strategy to reform correctional facilities.


Solomon, Amy L., et al. Putting Public Safety First -- 13 Parole Supervision Strategies to Enhance Reentry Outcomes. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, 2008.

Organization-level and individual-level strategies for improving the supervision of offenders in the community are described. Sections of this report include: introduction -- background and Offender Reentry focus of this paper; define success as recidivism reduction and measure performance; tailor conditions of supervision; focus resources on moderate and high-risk parolees; front-load supervision resources; implement earned discharge; implement place-based supervision; engage partners to expand intervention capacities; assess criminogenic risk and need factors; develop and implement supervision case plans that balance surveillance and treatment; involve parolees to enhance their engagement in assessment, case planning, and supervision; engage informal social controls to facilitate community reintegration; incorporate incentives and rewards into the supervision process; employ graduated problem-solving responses to violations of parole conditions in a swift and certain manner; and repositioning parole supervision -- looking ahead.


Wolf, Robert V. Reentry Courts: Looking Ahead: A Conversation about Strategies for Offender Reintegration. New York: Center for Court Innovation, 2011.

Anyone interested in reentry courts will find this report’s insights informative. Topics discussed include current research, key program elements, eligibility requirements, managing the transition from prison to reentry court, evidence-based practices, adapting the drug court model, developing support for reentry initiatives, statewide coordination of reentry courts, overcoming institutional divisions, funding, and composition of the reentry court team.