Facts and Trends

Along with having the Word of Christ, it is helpful to have the data to assist in the advocacy and awareness of Correctional ministries.

Collections of Data for assistance in Correctional Ministries

Recidivism 10 year Follow-Up Study (2008-2018)
This report by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is the first BJS recidivism study with a 10 year follow-up period.  Among persons released from state prisons in 2008 across 24 states, 82% were arrested at least once during the 10 years following release. The annual arrest percentage among persons released from prison in 2012 declined over time, with 43% arrested at least once in Year 1 of their release, 29% arrested in Year 5, and 22% arrested in Year 10.  

Justice Counts Unveils New 50-State Scan of Criminal Justice Data
As part of the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s Justice Counts initiative, researchers from Recidiviz and The Council of State Governments Justice Center conducted a 50-state scan of publicly available, aggregate-level corrections and jails data.   

Report on Mass Incarceration Rates State by State  This webpage provided by the Prison Policy Institute (PPI) reveals information current incarceration rates and covid impact on prisons and jails in each state.

Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 34 states in 2012 (5 year follow up report) A special report published by the U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, indicates that among state prisoners released in 2012 across 34 states, 62% were arrested within 3 years, and 71% were arrested within 5 years.

Probation and Parole in the U.S. in 2019 This report by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics presents findings on data collected on adults placed on supervision or removed from supervision during the reporting year.  The data reveals that from 2000-2019 the adult probation rate fell 25% while the adult parole rate remained stable. In 2019, probation exits outpaced entries for the 11th consecutive year.

Capital Punishment, 2019  This report by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics presents statistics on the death penalty. It discusses the number of states that have authorized the death penalty, the methods of execution, and the number and demographics of prisoners who were under sentence of death during 2019. The report also provides data on the number of prisoners executed in 2019 and advance counts of executions in 2020.

The State of the BIBLE, USA 2021–research from the American Bible Society  The 2021 State of the Bible, contains scientific research about America, the church, the Bible. We will discuss how gender, race, faith tradition, relationships, and access to technology influence Americans’ experience with God. The data will paint a picture of how COVID-19 has shattered families, emptied bank accounts, taken jobs,and distanced relationships. That picture is vivid and sometimes challenging, but it is not hopeless.  Millions of Americans face these challenges with hope that they find in the Bible

Mortality in State and Federal Prisons, 2001-2018  This report released in April 2021 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics indicates that In 2018, a total of 4,135 state prisoners died in publicly or privately operated prisons, and an additional 378 federal prisoners died in facilities operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP).  In state prisons, the number of deaths rose 5% from 2017 (3,943) to 2018 (4,135), the highest level since the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) began collecting information on mortality in state prisons in 2001.

Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2018  This report released in April 2021 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics indicates that in 2018 a total of 1,120 inmates died in local jails, an increase of nearly 2% from the 1,099 deaths reported in 2017 and the highest number of deaths reported in local jails since the BJS began collecting mortality data in 2000.

Time Served in State Prisons, 2018  This report released in March 2021 by the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics indicates that two-thirds of offenders released from state prison in 2018 served less than 2 years in prison before their initial release.

Disabilities Reported by Prisoners: Survey of Prison Inmates 2016  This report released in March 2021 by the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics indicates that nearly 2 in 5 (38%) state and federal prisoners had at least one disability in 2016.

Veterans in Prison: Survey of Prison Inmates in 2016  This report released in March 2021 by the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics indicates that an estimated 107,400 veterans were serving time in state and federal prisons in 2016.

What the data says (and doesn’t say) about crime in the United States This research (released 11/20/20), from the Pew Research Institute, analyzes data from the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) and Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS).  This research study uses information from these sources to obtain a good picture of U.S. violent and property crime rates and how they have changed over time.

The Sentencing Project Fact Sheet:  Incarcerated Women and Girls  Over the past quarter century, there has been a profound change in the involvement of women within the criminal justice system. This is the result of more expansive law enforcement efforts, stiffer drug sentencing laws, and post-conviction barriers to reentry that uniquely affect women. The female incarcerated population stands over seven times higher than in 1980. More than 60% of women in state prisons have a child under the age of 18.

Global Prison Trends, 2018 Every year, Global Prison Trends by Penal Reform International (in collaboration with the Thailand Institute of Justice) provides us with a global view on the state of prisons.

2018 Update on Prisoner Recidivism: A 9-Year Follow-Up Period (2005-2014)

Federal Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2015-2016 (released January, 2019) This report describes the annual activity, workloads, and outcomes of the federal criminal justice system from arrest to imprisonment.

NIC Myths & Facts: Why Incarceration Is Not the Best Way to Keep Communities Safe

International Statistics on Crime and Justice

NIC Jail Incarceration Trends

Incarceration Trends

Long-Term Sentences: Time to Reconsider the Scale of Punishment by Marc Mauer
Unduly long prison terms are counterproductive for public safety and contribute to the dynamic of diminishing returns as the prison system has expanded.

Time Served: The High Cost, Low Return of Longer Prison Terms The length of time served in prison has increased markedly over the last two decades, according to a new study by Pew’s Public Safety Performance Project. Prisoners released in 2009 served an average of nine additional months in custody, or 36 percent longer, than offenders released in 1990. These extended prison sentences came at a price: prisoners released from incarceration in 2009 cost states $23,300 per offender–or a total of over $10 billion nationwide. More than half of that amount was for non-violent offenders.

5 Facts About the Death Penalty
A Pew Research Center survey showed an uptick in the share of Americans who favor capital punishment for those convicted of murder. Over the long term, however, public support for the death penalty has declined significantly, as has the number of executions in the United States. As the debate over the death penalty continues in the U.S. and worldwide, read about five facts about the issue.

First Step Act 2018
On December 21, 2018, President Trump signed into law the First Step Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-391). The act was the culmination of several years of congressional debate about what Congress might do to reduce the size of the federal prison population while also creating mechanisms to maintain public safety. This report provides an overview of the provisions of the act..

Top Trends in States Criminal Justice Reform
The United States is a world leader in incarceration and keeps nearly 7 million persons under criminal justice supervision. More than 2.2 million are in prison or jail, while 4.6 million are monitored in the community on probation or parole. More punitive sentencing laws and policies, not increases in crime rates, have
produced this high rate of incarceration. Ending mass incarceration will require changing sentencing policies and practices, scaling back the collateral consequences of conviction, and addressing racial disparities in the criminal justice system. In recent years most states have enacted reforms designed to
reduce the scale of incarceration and the impact of the collateral consequences of a felony conviction. This briefing paper describes key reforms undertaken in 2019 prioritized by The Sentencing Project.

Winnable Criminal Justice Reforms
A Prison Policy Initiative briefing on promising state reform issues for 2020