Special Populations

Berman, Judith. Women Offender Transition and Reentry: Gender Responsive Approaches to Transitioning Women Offenders from Prison to the Community.Silver Spring, MD: Center for Effective Public Policy, 2005.

“This document summarizes the work on gender responsive approaches to women offenders in the context of the TPC [Transition from Prison to Community] Initiative, a system-wide approach to facilitating more effective transition of offenders from prison to the community” (p. 37). Sections comprising this report are: introduction; the need for gender responsiveness; women and transition — assessment, behavior and programming, release preparation, release preparation; release, supervision and services, responses to violations, discharge, and aftercare; planning for a system-wide approach to transition; and conclusion. Appended are the diagrams “Critical Questions in Five Basic Life Areas at Key Decision Points of the TPC” and “Integrating Five Basic Life Areas of Women Offenders and Key Decision Points of the TPC.”


Bumby, Kurt, Tom Talbot, and Madeline Carter. Managing the Challenges of Sex Offender Reentry. Silver Spring, MD: Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007.

The “successful transition of sex offenders from prison to the community while ensuring victim and community safety” is explained (p.1). Sections of this policy and practice brief are: introduction; incarceration, release, and reincarceration trends with sex offenders; key elements of a sex offender reentry strategy; collaborate to achieve an “In to Out” approach; manage sex offenders in prison with an eye toward release; recognize the value of discretionary release decision making; to parole or not to parole sex offenders; “reach out” during the transition and release process; snapshot — sex offender reentry in Vermont; snapshot — using the Circles of Accountability and Support model to support sex offender reentry in Colorado; unintended consequences associated with community notification and residency restrictions; ensure victim-centeredness in the reentry process; adopt a success-oriented approach to post-release supervision; examples of dynamic risk factors relevant to post-release supervision and treatment of sex offenders; snapshot — sex offender reentry in Texas; and conclusion.


Critical Elements of Re-Entry/Continuing Care Systems [Participant’s Manual]. Longmont, CO:National Institute of Corrections Academy, 2005.

“Using a three-phase process [during this 36-hour course] to plan, create, and evaluate reentry/continuing care systems, participant teams plan ways to help juvenile offenders from their jurisdictions successfully transition from institutional settings back into the community.” Sections of this manual include: jurisdictional team action planning — building your new reentry/continuing care reality; visualizing juvenile success in your reentry/continuing care jurisdiction; what are you currently bringing to the reentry/continuing care table?; becoming a change agent — meeting the challenge; analyzing current practices — discovering strengths and challenges; systems of care; and evaluation of reentry/continuing care.


Cusick, Gretchen Ruth, Robert M. George, and Katie Claussen Bell. From Corrections to Community: The Juvenile Reentry Experience as Characterized by Multiple Systems Involvement. Final report. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, 2008.

The impact of involvement in multiple systems on the recidivism of ex-offending juveniles in Illinois is investigated. Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; methods; findings — description of systems involvement, profiles of multiple systems involvement in the collective reentry experience, and recidivism among youth with different reentry experiences; and discussion and implications. Involvement in multiple systems does not directly lead to lower recidivism rates.


Daly, Reagan. Treatment and Reentry Practices for Sex Offenders: An Overview of States. New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2008.

An “overview and analysis of existing treatment and reentry practices for sex offenders who are involved with the criminal justice system” is provided (p. iii). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction and background; methodology; research on prison- and community-based treatment, reentry programming, and community supervision; recent trends in prison- and community-based treatment, reentry programming, and community supervision; and conclusions. State overview tables for prison-based treatment, community-based treatment, reentry programming, and community supervision practices; and individual state templates.


Greenberg, Richard. Do No Harm: A Briefing Paper on the Reentry of Gang-Affiliated Individuals in New Jersey. Newark, NJ: New Jersey Institute for Social Justice, 2007.

Strategies for reintegrating gang-affiliated offenders into New Jersey communities are explained. Sections after an executive summary are: introduction; background and context — gangs and gang interventions, reentry dynamics of gang-affiliated individuals, and gang-related prison and parole programs in New Jersey; promising strategies — pre-release and post-release interventions; and lessons learned.


Guidelines to Gang Reentry. Lexington, KY: American Probation and Parole Association, 2011.

This guide provides suggestions “to assist gang-involved individuals returning to the community from confinement … [and] for planning interventions for gang-involved defendants/offenders, along with helpful hints for facilitating effective and efficient reentry.” Sections following the “Literature Review: Reentry and Gang-Affiliated Offenders” by James Howell are: institutional phase of reentry from intake to release; structured reentry phase—transitional work done by both the institution and community corrections; the community reintegration phase overseen by community corrections officers; and guiding principles for community reintegration.


Lowman, Jennifer, and Shari A. Mamas. Educational Aftercare & Reintegration Toolkit for Juvenile Justice Professionals: A Toolkit for Juvenile Justice Professionals in Pennsylvania. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Models for Change Education Law Center, 2009.

This toolkit is designed to “serve as a roadmap for identifying issues related to the education of delinquent youth during placement and when they are released and reintegrated into their communities” (p. 7). Nine sections are contained in this toolkit: introduction; pre-placement dispositional hearing; educational services in placement; release and reintegration into the community; enrollment, attendance, and truancy; special education and other in-school services; school discipline; where to go for more help and information; and conclusion. Included are Checklist of Key Activities from Pre-Placement through Release and Reintegration” and samples of 18 specific tools for use in juvenile offender aftercare and reintegration.


Prendergast, Michael L. Interventions to Promote Successful Re-Entry among Drug-Abusing Parolees [and] Response: Pathways to Recovery and Reintegration.Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009.

Reviews research findings on principles of effective correctional treatment and the interventions that have been shown to be effective with drug abusing parolees or that have been tested with general drug-abusing populations and shown promise for use with parolees.


Reichert, Jessica, Dawn Ruzich, and Rebecca Campbell. Community Reentry after Prison Drug Treatment: Learning from Sheridan Therapeutic Community Program Participants. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, 2012.

Results from an evaluation of the Sheridan Correctional Center National Drug Prison and Reentry Program are provided. Graduates remained two years in the community before re-incarceration, on average.


Strategies for Creating Offender Reentry Programs in Indian Country. Albuquerque, NM: American Indian Development Associates, 2010.

“The information presented in this document will assist tribal justice practitioners, administrators, and policymakers in designing and developing reentry strategies for adult and juvenile offenders returning to their tribal communities” (p. 5). Sections of this report include: introduction; historical overview; developing reentry programs in Indian Country—justice system, intervention and treatment, and community restoration; general reentry policy considerations—Tribal government responsibilities, funding, and Tribal community roles; recommendations; conclusion; case descriptions; and federal funding sources.


Women Offender Case Management Model. Ottawa, ON: Orbis Partners, Inc., 2006.

The gender-responsive Women Offender Case Management Model (WOCMM) is described. This document covers: the history of the project; philosophy and core practices; process incorporating four core elements (e.g., engage and assess, enhance motivation, implement the case plan, and review progress); preparing for implementation; and evaluation.


Zarch, Rebecca. A Practitioner’s “Blueprint” for Replication. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates, 2007. Designed to share the lessons learned from Women Offender Reentry Collaborative, including organizations that are already serving similar populations and those considering expanding or modifying services.


Zimmermann, Carol Rapp, Gina Hendrix, James Moeser, and David W. Roush, eds. Desktop Guide to Reentry for Juvenile Confinement Facilities. East Lansing MI: Center for Research & Professional Development, National Juvenile Detention Association, July 2004.

Components of an effective juvenile reentry process are described. Sections of this guide include: the roots of reentry—what we can learn from history, research, and theory; equipping for reentry success—building partnerships, coalitions, and independence; reinventing the process—shifting to a reentry mission, case plan, and transition plan; defining reentry for short-term stays; data to drive decisions–measuring reentry success; marketing reentry–agenda setting and the media; summary of risk and protective factors by domain; Texas Youth Commission Service Department Independent Living Subsidy Program Contract and Conditions of Placement; defining roles from confinement to community; Planning for Transition–the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services’ Model; the tasks of community reentry–what institutions do; and the Santa Cruz County Juvenile Detention Screening Risk Assessment.